Discover transformative advantages with my professional counselling, psychology, psychotherapy and mental health services to boost your feeling. The services can be in Persian or English.

Seyedmohammad Kalantar, Ph.D.

Registered Clinical Counsellor (RCC)


Post traumatic stress disorder

Visual representation depicting PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder). Learn about PTSD causes, symptoms, and coping strategies. Explore PTSD counseling service with Kalantar Counselling.
PTSD is one of the Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders. In other words, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) categorized it as one of disorders of Trauma – and Stressor-Related Disorders.

There are five disorders under Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders:

I. Reactive attachment disorder
II. Disinhibited social engagement disorder
III. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
IV. Acute stress disorder
V. Adjustment disorders


In general, Traumatic or stressful events are relatively variable and then psychological distress based on them are also different. Further, sometimes, symptoms are similar with the symptoms of anxiety then we need treat them as they related to anxiety. However, many times there are other than anxiety- or fear-based symptoms.

The symptoms, based on DSM, are anhedonic and dysphoric, externalizing angry and aggressive, or dissociative.

People with PTSD have:

  • Experienced or witnessed a traumatic event(s)
  • Intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event(s)
  • Dissociative reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event(s) were recurring
  • Nightmares
  • Intense distress at real or symbolic reminders of the trauma
  • Physical sensations such as pain, sweating, nausea or trembling


  1. Physical sensation (e.g., dizziness for survivors of head trauma; rapid heartbeat for a previously traumatized child), can be a triggering cue
  2. There is an inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event due to dissociative amnesia
  3. They blame themselves or other
  4. A persistent negative mood state (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, shame)
  5. The individual may experience obviously reduced interest or participation in previously enjoyed activities
  6. Feeling detached or estranged from other people, or a persistent inability to feel positive emotions such as happiness, joy, satisfaction, or emotions associated with intimacy, tenderness, and sexuality
  7. They may be quick tempered and may even engage in aggressive verbal and/or physical behavior with little or no provocation (e.g., yelling at people, getting into fights, destroying objects)
  8. Problems with sleep onset and maintenance are common and may be associated with nightmares and safety concerns.

How may PTSD impact on the client?

  • Dysfunctional beliefs
  • Tendency to overestimate threat
  • Perfectionism
  • Intolerance of uncertainty
  • Over-importance of thoughts
  • Anxiety
  • Panic attack
  • Strong feelings of disgust.
  • Distressing sense of “incompleteness” or uneasiness
  • Avoiding people, places, and things that trigger obsessions and compulsions (e.g., restaurants, public restrooms)
  • Reduced quality of life as well as high levels of social and occupational impairment

How can I help my clients with PTSD?

As each client has their unique signs for PTSD and particular cause(s) of the PTSD , I need to individualize a treatment approach for them. Indeed, different age and different terrible events need to be recognised and identified. Further, it is important to know how the PTSD impacted on the client and even their family to make a critical treatment plan for them. Evidenced-based treatment(s) such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Cognitive Therapy, Exposure Therapy, Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) are using during my counselling sessions with my clients with PTSD.

In my counselling session(s), along with using the therapy approach mentioned above, there are some instances of help for such clients are but not limited:

  • Helping set goals
  • Recognizing feelings
  • Identify and reduce triggers
  • How to cope with negative feelings
  • Helping for their positive emotions
  • Based on the present signs how to cope with them or get rid of them
  • How to see and interpret past awful stories
  • Learning some relevant useful techniques